MilliporeSigma
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Complementary feeding recommendations based on locally available foods in Indonesia.

Complementary feeding recommendations based on locally available foods in Indonesia.

Food and nutrition bulletin (2015-02-03)
Umi Fahmida, Otte Santika, Risatianti Kolopaking, Elaine Ferguson
ABSTRACT

Affordable, locally contextual complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) that take into account cultural diversity and differences in food availability will be more likely to result in long-term improvements in complementary feeding practices than general recommendations. More objective approaches, such as linear programming (LP), have been recommended to identify optimal but CFRs to meet nutrient requirements given local food availability, food patterns, food portions, and cost. To present results of our previous studies in which we developed CFRs using LP and to provide an example of how these CFRs can be put into practice in a community intervention trial in Indonesia. Dietary data were obtained using single 24-hour dietary recall or 1-day weighed diet record combined with 1-day 24-hour recall and 5-day food intake tally. With the use of the LP approach, nutrient intakes were optimized while ensuring that a realistic diet was selected by using constraints such as the diet's energy content, food patterns, food portions, and cost. The price per 100 g of edible portion was obtained from market surveys in two or three local markets in each study area. LP analysis was performed using Super Solver in MS Excel or Optifood software. Iron, zinc, calcium, and niacin were problem nutrients in all age groups of children (6 to 8, 9 to 11, and 12 to 23 months) in both rural and periurban areas, except among children of higher socioeconomic status in urban areas. Thiamin and folate were also problem nutrients found in some settings. Animal-source foods (meat, fish, poultry, and eggs [MFPE] and fortified foods were the nutrient-dense foods identified by LP to fill the nutrient gaps of these problem nutrients. Iron, calcium, zinc, niacin, and potentially folate and thiamine are typical "problem nutrients" in complementary foods of Indonesian children. However, the extent of dietary inadequacy varies across age groups, area, and socioeconomic level. MFPE and fortified foods can improve micronutrient adequacy in complementary feeding diets and should be promoted in CFRs.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, sputtering target, diam. × thickness 3.00 in. × 0.125 in., 99.995% trace metals basis
Zinc, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.175mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 2m coil, thickness 0.35mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 5m coil, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Zinc, foil, 2m coil, thickness 0.1mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 50mm disks, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Zinc, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.05mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.25mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Zinc, foil, 2m coil, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 5m coil, thickness 0.05mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 25mm disks, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Zinc, foil, 50mm disks, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 4mm disks, thickness 0.05mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Zinc, foil, 2m coil, thickness 0.05mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 6mm disks, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Zinc, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 1.0mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 6mm disks, thickness 0.125mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Zinc, foil, light tested, 25x25mm, thickness 0.025mm, as rolled, 99.99+%
Zinc, foil, 8mm disks, thickness 0.15mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Zinc, foil, 2m coil, thickness 0.5mm, as rolled, 99.95+%
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, shot, 99.9999%
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, granular, 20-30 mesh, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, shot, 5 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, foil, thickness 0.25 mm, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, foil, thickness 1.0 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, pieces, 2-14 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, shot, <12 mm, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Zinc, sticks, diam. 7-10 mm, 99.97% trace metals basis