Rhodosporidium toruloides is a lipid-producing yeast, the growth of which is severely suppressed when hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass are used as carbon source. This is probably due to the toxic substances, such as organic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds produced during the preparation of the hydrolysates. In order to solve this problem, R. toruloides cultures were subjected to atmospheric room-temperature plasma mutagenesis, resulting in the isolation of mutants showing tolerance to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SBH). Three mutant strains, M11, M13, and M18, were found to grow with producing lipids with SBH as carbon source. M11 in particular appeared to accumulate higher levels (up to 60% of dry cell weight) of intracellular lipids. Further, all three mutant strains showed tolerance of vanillin, furfural, and acetic acid, with different spectra, suggesting that different genetic determinants are involved in SBH tolerance.