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  • VDR status arbitrates the prometastatic effects of tumor-associated macrophages.

VDR status arbitrates the prometastatic effects of tumor-associated macrophages.

Molecular cancer research : MCR (2014-05-14)
Yan Zhang, Quanjun Guo, Zhujun Zhang, Nan Bai, Ze Liu, Min Xiong, Yuquan Wei, Rong Xiang, Xiaoyue Tan
ABSTRACT

The relationship between tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during the initiation and progression of metastasis is still unclear. Here, a role for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in metastasis was identified, as well as a role in the relationship between TAMs and EMT. First, the expression level of VDR was examined in clinical tissue from human patients with breast cancer or a mouse model of breast cancer with differential metastasis. These results revealed that VDR expression negatively correlates with metastasis in breast cancer. Second, coculture of VDR-overexpressing breast cancer cells with a macrophage cell line demonstrated that overexpression of VDR alleviated the prometastatic effect of cocultured macrophages on breast cancer cells. Furthermore, VDR overexpression abrogated the induction of EMT in breast cancer cells by cocultured macrophage cells, as measured by a loss of E-cadherin (CDH1) and induction of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). TNFα in macrophage conditioned media inhibited VDR expression, whereas downregulation of VDR further mediated the promotion of TGFβ-induced EMT by TNFα. In addition, β-catenin expression was inhibited in VDR-overexpressing breast cancer cells and tumor xenografts. Finally, administration of calcitriol [1,25-(OH)2D3], an active vitamin D metabolite, exerted similar antimetastatic effects in breast cancer cells in vitro and a mouse model of breast cancer in vivo with preservation of VDR and suppression of β-catenin. VDR suppression by TNFα mediates the prometastatic effect of TAMs through enhancement of the β-catenin pathway.

MATERIALS
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Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
SPD304, ≥98% (HPLC), solid
Sigma-Aldrich
DAPI, for nucleic acid staining