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  • A NMR-based, non-targeted multistep metabolic profiling revealed L-rhamnitol as a metabolite that characterised apples from different geographic origins.

A NMR-based, non-targeted multistep metabolic profiling revealed L-rhamnitol as a metabolite that characterised apples from different geographic origins.

Food chemistry (2014-12-23)
Satoru Tomita, Tadashi Nemoto, Yosuke Matsuo, Toshihiko Shoji, Fukuyo Tanaka, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Ono, Jun Kikuchi, Mayumi Ohnishi-Kameyama, Yasuyo Sekiyama
ABSTRACT

This study utilises (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling to characterise apples of five cultivars grown either in Japan (Fuji, Orin, and Jonagold) or New Zealand (Fuji, Jazz, and Envy). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation between the Fuji-Orin-Jonagold class and the Jazz-Envy class, primarily corresponding to the differences in sugar signals, such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Multistep PCA removed the influence of dominant sugars and highlighted minor metabolites such as aspartic acid, 2-methylmalate, and an unidentified compound. These minor metabolites separated the apples into two classes according to different geographical areas. Subsequent partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) indicated the importance of the unidentified metabolite. This metabolite was isolated using charcoal chromatography, and was identified as L-rhamnitol by 2D NMR and LC/MS analyses. The remarkable contribution of L-rhamnitol to geographic discrimination suggests that apples may be characterised according to various factors, including storage duration, cultivation method, and climate.

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