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94635

Sigma-Aldrich

Gram′s safranin solution

for microscopy

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Synonym(s):
Safranin T solution
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C20H19ClN4
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
350.84
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
3924099
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
MA.02

grade

for microscopy

Quality Level

form

liquid

shelf life

limited shelf life, expiry date on the label

composition

ethanol, 10%

technique(s)

microbe id | staining: suitable

color

red to very dark red

refractive index

n20/D 1.339

solubility

water: soluble at 20 °C

density

0.986 g/mL at 20 °C

εmax

4.0 at 532 nm in 50% ethanol

antibiotic activity spectrum

Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria

application(s)

diagnostic assay manufacturing
hematology
histology

storage temp.

room temp

SMILES string

[Cl-].Cc1cc2nc3cc(C)c(N)cc3[n+](-c4ccccc4)c2cc1N

InChI

1S/C20H18N4.ClH/c1-12-8-17-19(10-15(12)21)24(14-6-4-3-5-7-14)20-11-16(22)13(2)9-18(20)23-17;/h3-11H,1-2H3,(H3,21,22);1H

InChI key

OARRHUQTFTUEOS-UHFFFAOYSA-N

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This Item
84120S8884S2255
Gram’s safranin solution for microscopy

94635

Gram′s safranin solution

Safranin O for microscopy (Bact., Bot., Hist.), indicator (pH 0.3-1.0)

84120

Safranin O

Safranin O certified by the Biological Stain Commission

S8884

Safranin O

Safranin O Dye content ≥85 %

S2255

Safranin O

technique(s)

microbe id | staining: suitable

technique(s)

titration: suitable

technique(s)

-

technique(s)

-

color

red to very dark red

color

-

color

green to very dark green

color

-

form

liquid

form

powder or crystals

form

powder

form

powder

application(s)

diagnostic assay manufacturing
hematology
histology

application(s)

diagnostic assay manufacturing
hematology
histology
microbiology

application(s)

diagnostic assay manufacturing
hematology
histology

application(s)

diagnostic assay manufacturing
hematology
histology

solubility

water: soluble at 20 °C

solubility

methanol: 0.01 g/10 mL, red

solubility

H2O: 1 mg/mL

solubility

water: 1 mg/mL, clear, dark red to very dark red and red purple

General description

Gram’s safranin solution, also known as Safranin T or Basic Red 2, is a ready-to-use staining solution that comprises 10% safranin in ethanol. Safranin is a basic, cationic, azine dye containing a planar, diaminophenazine chromophore, with a phenyl substituent attached to a ring nitrogen. The trimethyl cationic form of safranine is lipophilic, whereas the dimethyl forms are weakly hydrophilic. It is most notably used in bacteriology as a counterstain in Gram staining to differentiate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Application

Gram’s safranin solution has been used in the following applications:
  • as a non-toxic replacement for crystal violet for the quantification of biofilm formation
  • to develop a hyaluronic acid visualization method
  • to study improved β-lactam susceptibility against biofilm-embedded staphylococcus aureus by 2-aminothiazole

Features and Benefits

  • Ready-to-use solution.
  • Modified and designed in such a way that staining can be carried out in staining cells, on the staining rack, and in automated staining systems.

Principle

Gram staining enables the differentiation of bacteria into Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The mureine structure of the bacterial cell wall is the basis of the color affinity. Bacteria are first stained with crystal violet, and then with iodine solution, which forms a dye-iodine complex. This complex is retained in the multi-layer mureine structure of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria after decolorization, imparting a blue-violet color. The cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria comprises a single-layered murein structure that does not retain the dye-iodine complex, allowing the uptake of safranine counterstain, and imparting a pink-red color.

pictograms

Flame

signalword

Warning

hcodes

Hazard Classifications

Flam. Liq. 3

Storage Class

3 - Flammable liquids

wgk_germany

WGK 2

flash_point_f

114.8 °F

flash_point_c

46 °C

ppe

Eyeshields, Faceshields, Gloves, type ABEK (EN14387) respirator filter


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Quantification of biofilm biomass by staining: Non-toxic safranin can replace the popular crystal violet
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