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D048

Sigma-Aldrich

MPP+ iodide

≥98% (HPLC), powder

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Synonym(s):
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C12H12IN
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
297.13
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.77

Quality Level

assay

≥98% (HPLC)

form

powder

storage condition

desiccated

color

white to beige

solubility

H2O: 10 mg/mL, clear

SMILES string

[I-].C[n+]1ccc(cc1)-c2ccccc2

InChI

1S/C12H12N.HI/c1-13-9-7-12(8-10-13)11-5-3-2-4-6-11;/h2-10H,1H3;1H/q+1;/p-1

InChI key

RFDFRDXIIKROAI-UHFFFAOYSA-M

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This Item
H4381SML2284M7068
vibrant-m

D048

MPP+ iodide

vibrant-m

H4381

6-Hydroxydopamine hydrochloride

vibrant-m

SML2284

Mito A iodide

vibrant-m

M7068

MPP dihydrochloride hydrate

assay

≥98% (HPLC)

assay

≥97% (titration)

assay

≥98% (HPLC)

assay

≥97% (HPLC)

Quality Level

100

Quality Level

100

Quality Level

-

Quality Level

100

solubility

H2O: 10 mg/mL, clear

solubility

H2O: >50 mg/mL, clear, yellow to brown

solubility

DMSO: 2 mg/mL, clear

solubility

DMSO: soluble ≥20 mg/mL

storage condition

desiccated

storage condition

-

storage condition

-

storage condition

desiccated

color

white to beige

color

off-white to brown

color

white to light brown

color

white

General description

1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induces neurotoxicity by inhibiting mitochondrial redox functions in the striatal synaptosomes. It is a potential neurotoxin and induces Parkinson′s disease in animal models. It mediates apoptosis by the generation of reactive oxygen species in cerebellar granule neurons and neuroblastoma cells. MPP+ modulates the distribution of dopamine. It elicits neurotoxicity by activating neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), resulting in excess nitric oxide.

Application

MPP+ iodide has been used:
  • to induce oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos
  • for the inhibition of glutamate uptake in mitochondria of astrocytes
  • in testing cell viability using MTT (3 (4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) in microglia (BV2) cells

Biochem/physiol Actions

MPP+ iodide is an active metabolite of dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP.

Caution

Photosensitive.

Preparation Note

Solutions should be freshly prepared.

pictograms

Skull and crossbones

signalword

Danger

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 3 Dermal - Acute Tox. 3 Inhalation - Acute Tox. 3 Oral - Eye Irrit. 2 - Skin Irrit. 2 - STOT SE 3

target_organs

Respiratory system

Storage Class

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

wgk_germany

WGK 3

flash_point_f

Not applicable

flash_point_c

Not applicable

ppe

Eyeshields, Faceshields, Gloves, type P2 (EN 143) respirator cartridges


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1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial oxidant generation: role of transferrin-receptor-dependent iron and hydrogen peroxide
Kalivendi SV, et al.
The Biochemical Journal, 371(1), 151-164 (2003)
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) decreases mitochondrial oxidation-reduction (REDOX) activity and membrane potential (DeltaPsim) in rat striatum
Nakai M, et al.
Experimental Neurology, 179(1), 103-110 (2003)
The MPTP story
Langston, J William
Journal of Parkinson's Disease, 7(s1), S11-S19 (2017)
Bart de Nijs et al.
Nature communications, 8(1), 994-994 (2017-10-24)
Nanoparticles attached just above a flat metallic surface can trap optical fields in the nanoscale gap. This enables local spectroscopy of a few molecules within each coupled plasmonic hotspot, with near thousand-fold enhancement of the incident fields. As a result
Lack of PINK1 alters glia innate immune responses and enhances inflammation-induced, nitric oxide-mediated neuron death
Sun L, et al.
Scientific Reports, 8(1), 383-383 (2018)

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