Use the interactive controls above to simplify calculations and improve the efficiency of your distillation or evaporation requirements.

Our Pressure-Temperature Nomograph tool is an application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, which assumes the heat of vaporization is a constant over a pressure range. The Antoine equation gets around this assumption by using empirical data for each unique liquid under consideration.

Enter the pressure and temperature in any of five units of pressure (atmospheres, bar, kilopascals, pounds per square inch, or millimeters of mercury) and five units of temperature (degrees Celsius, Kelvin, Fahrenheit, Rankine, or Réaumur).

- McQuarrie, D. A.; Simon, J. D.
*Mathematics for Physical Chemistry*. University Science Books; 2008. - Goodman, J. M.; Kirby, P. D.; Haustedt, L.O.
*Tetrahedron Letters*.**2000**. 41, 9879-9882. - Thomson, G. W. Chemical Reviews.
**1946**. 38 (1), 1-29.

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