Potential Role of OERP as Early Marker of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience (2018-10-03)
Sara Invitto, Giulia Piraino, Vincenzo Ciccarese, Laura Carmillo, Marcella Caggiula, Giorgio Trianni, Giuseppe Nicolardi, Santo Di Nuovo, Michela Balconi
ABSTRACT

Olfactory impairment is present in up to 90% of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is present in certain cases of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a transient phase between normal aging and dementia. Subjects affected by MCI have a higher risk of developing dementia compared to the general population, and studies have found that olfactory deficits could be an indicator of whether such a conversion might happen. Following these assumptions, aim of this study was to investigate olfactory perception in MCI patients. We recruited 12 MCI subjects (mean age 70 ± 6.7 years) through the Alzheimer Assessment Unit (UVA Unite) of ASL Lecce (Italy), and 12 healthy geriatric volunteers (HS) as the control group (mean age 64 ± 6.0 years), all of whom were first evaluated via a panel of neuropsychological tests. Subjects were asked to perform an olfactory recognition task involving two scents: rose and eucalyptus, administrated in the context of an oddball task during EEG recordings. Olfactory event-related potential (OERP) components N1 and Late Positive Potential (LPC) were then analyzed as measures of the sensorial and perceptive aspects of the olfactory response, respectively. It was determined that, in the MCI group, both the N1 and LPC components were significantly different compared to those of the HS group during the execution of the oddball task. In particular, the N1 amplitude, was reduced, while the LPC amplitude was increased, indicating that a degree of perceptive compensation can occur when sensorial function is impaired. Further, a correlation analysis, involving OERP components and neuropsychological battery scores, indicated that impairment of olfactory perception may share common pathways with impairments of the spatial system and long-term memory processing.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Eucalyptol, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenethyl alcohol, natural, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Eucalyptol, analytical standard