Perfluoroalkyl acids in blood serum samples from children in Taiwan.

Environmental science and pollution research international (2014-03-14)
Jia Bao, Yungling Leo Lee, Pau-Chung Chen, Yi-He Jin, Guang-Hui Dong
ABSTRACT

Severe perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination resulting from the fast-growing semiconductor, electrochemical, and optoelectronic industries has been determined in the river water in the vicinity of the Taipei area, Taiwan, during recent years. However, little is known about body burdens of the PFAA contaminations in local residents, especially children living in the Taipei area recently. In this study, ten target PFAA analytes consisted of three perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and seven perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the blood serum samples, collected from 225 healthy children with an average age of 13.6 years in the Taipei area from 2009 to 2010, were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). As the dominant PFAA contaminant in the blood serum samples from Taiwanese children, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contributed 86% of all the target PFAA analytes, while the other nine analytes contributed less than 5% individually. PFOS showed the highest median up to 29 ng/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 148 ng/mL, which was higher than that observed in the serum samples collected from Taiwanese children between 2006 and 2008. Statistically, serum concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had significantly positive correlations with ages of children (p < 0.05). Furthermore, serum PFBS, PFHxS, and PFOA concentrations in the male children were considerably higher than those in the female children (p = 0.049, p = 0.000, p = 0.000).

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium carbonate, ACS reagent, anhydrous, ≥99.5%, powder or granules
Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate, 97%
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Sodium carbonate, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium carbonate, powder, ≥99.5%, ACS reagent
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Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate, puriss., ≥99.0% (T)
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Sodium carbonate, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Perfluorooctanoic acid, 95%
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Sodium carbonate, ACS reagent (primary standard), anhydrous, 99.95-100.05% dry basis
Supelco
Sodium carbonate concentrate, 0.1 M Na2CO3 in water, eluent concentrate for IC
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Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0%
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Sodium carbonate, anhydrous, powder, 99.999% trace metals basis
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Potassium, chunks (in mineral oil), 98% trace metals basis
Supelco
Sodium carbonate concentrate, Na2CO3 72 mM in water, IC eluent concentrate (20x) for Metrosep A Supp 7
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Heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid solution, ~40% in H2O (T)
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Potassium hydride, 30 wt % dispersion in mineral oil
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Sodium carbonate, certified reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM, ≥99.5%
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Heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid solution, 100 μg/mL in methanol, analytical standard
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Potassium, cubes (in mineral oil), 99.5% trace metals basis
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Pentadecafluorooctanoic acid, analytical standard
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Sodium carbonate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, NF, FCC, E500, anhydrous, 99.5-100.5% (calc. to the dried substance)
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Perfluorodecanoic acid, 98%
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Potassium hydride, in paraffin
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Tricosafluorododecanoic acid, 95%
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Tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, 97%
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Perfluorotetradecanoic acid, 96%
Supelco
Pentadecafluorooctanoic acid solution, 100 μg/mL in methanol, analytical standard
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Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate solution, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, concentrate, ampule
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium carbonate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, ACS reagent (primary standard), 99.95-100.05% dry basis