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Characterization of a novel cometabolic degradation carbazole pathway by a phenol-cultivated Arthrobacter sp. W1.

Bioresource technology (2015-07-06)
Shengnan Shi, Yuanyuan Qu, Hao Zhou, Qiao Ma, Fang Ma
ABSTRACT

Arthrobacter sp. W1 was used to characterize the pathways involved in cometabolic degradation of carbazole (CA) with phenol as the primary substrate. To clarify the upper pathway of cometabolic degradation CA, Escherichia coli strain BL21 expressing phenol hydroxylase from strain W1 (PHIND) was investigated to degrade CA. Firstly, CA was initially monohydroxylated at C-2 and C-4 positions to produce 2- and 4-hydroxycarbazole, followed by successively hydroxylated to the corresponding 1,2- and 3,4-dihydroxycarbazole, of which 3,4-dihydroxycarbazole was unequivocally identified for the first time. To characterize the downstream cometabolic degradation CA pathway, purified 3,4-dihydroxycarbazole was used as the substrate for phenol-grown W1, and a series of novel indole derivatives were identified. These results suggested that a novel pathway of CA catabolism was employed by strain W1 via a successive hydroxylation and meta-cleavage pathway. These findings provide new insights into the cometabolic degradation CA process and have potential applications in biotechnology and bioremediation.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, for molecular biology
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol solution, BioReagent, Equilibrated with 10 mM Tris HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA, for molecular biology
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Liquified Phenol, ≥89.0%
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Phenol, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.0-100.5%
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1,2-Dihydroxybenzene, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
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Phenol, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
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Phenol, ≥99%
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Phenol solution, BioReagent, Saturated with 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.3 ± 0.2, for molecular biology
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Phenol, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99.5-100.5% (GC)
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Pyrocatechol, ≥99%
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Phenol, contains hypophosphorous as stabilizer, loose crystals, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
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Isatin, 97%
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Phenol, unstabilized, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
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Phenol, puriss., ≥99.5% (GC), meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, crystalline (detached)
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Phenol, BioUltra, for molecular biology, TE-saturated, ~73% (T)
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Phenol, unstabilized, purified by redistillation, ≥99%
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Phenol, natural, 97%, FG
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Phenol, ≥96.0% (calc. on dry substance, T)
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3-Indoleacrylic acid, BioReagent, ≥98% (HPLC)
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4-Hydroxycarbazole, 95%
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Pyrocatechol, purified by sublimation, ≥99.5%
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3-Indoleacrylic acid, powder
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Pyrocatechol, suitable for plant cell culture, BioReagent, ≥99%, powder

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