Greener Chemistry: Methods and Products for Amide Bond Formation

Amide bonds are ubiquitous in both nature and industrial applications. They are vital to the structure and function of biological macromolecules and polymers. The importance of this functionality has resulted in numerous approaches to its formation, ranging from stoichiometric activation of carboxylic acids to more recent advances in catalytic amide bond formation.

Amide Bond Formation

Peptide Coupling Reagents

The most well-precedented methods for amide formation involve activation of a carboxylic acid followed by treatment with an amine resulting in a net dehydration to form the amide bond. This approach is quite reliable and offers a number of choices with respect to coupling reagent and solvent. A selection of the products involved in these processes is listed below.

Boron-based Methods

Recently, the dehydration of carboxylic acids and amines to form amide bonds has been demonstrated using boric acid and related compounds. Many of these reactions can be carried out catalytically, provided a mechanism for water removal is available.

Boron-based Methods

Recently, the dehydration of carboxylic acids and amines to form amide bonds has been demonstrated using boric acid and related compounds. Many of these reactions can be carried out catalytically, provided a mechanism for water removal is available.

Boron-based Methods

Recently, the dehydration of carboxylic acids and amines to form amide bonds has been demonstrated using boric acid and related compounds. Many of these reactions can be carried out catalytically, provided a mechanism for water removal is available.

Materials
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