The global emergence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing Enterobacteriaceae have been threatening the ability to treat an infection. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing and multi-drug resistance (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLs-E) from different clinical specimens in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to May 30, 2017. A total of 426 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified from clinical specimens. The isolates were collected from four laboratories. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar (MHA). All Enterobacteriaceae were screened for ESBLs production using cefotaxime and ceftazidime as per CLSI guideline. Each ESBL screening positive Enterobacteriaceae were confirmed by a combination disk test (CDT). Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version-20. The most frequent Enterobacteriaceae were E. coli 228 (53.5%) and K. pneumoniae 103 (24.1%). The magnitude of ESBLs-E was 57.7% (246/426). The highest frequencies of ESBLs-E were observed in blood specimesns (84.4%) and the highest ESBLs production was observed in K. pneumoniae (85.4%). The highest resistance level was seen to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (77.0%), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (71.6%), cefotaxime (62.2%), cefepime (60.3%) and ceftazidime (60.8%). The overall magnitude of multi-drug resistance (MDR) level was 68.3%. Of ESBLs-E, 96.3% of them were MDR (P < 0.001). There was a high prevalence of ESBLs-E and MDR isolate in Addis Ababa. Most of ESBLs-E was isolated primarily in blood and urine. The highest ESBLs production was observed among K. pneumoniae. Hence, strong infection control strategies must be implemented in hospital settings of the country.
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