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Localized Blood-Brain Barrier Opening in Ovine Model Using Image-Guided Transcranial Focused Ultrasound.

Ultrasound in medicine & biology (2019-06-21)
Kyungho Yoon, Wonhye Lee, Emily Chen, Ji Eun Lee, Phillip Croce, Amanda Cammalleri, Lori Foley, Allison L Tsao, Seung-Schik Yoo
ABSTRACT

Transcranial application of focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with vascular introduction of microbubble contrast agents (MBs) has emerged as a non-invasive technique that can temporarily create a localized opening in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under image-guidance, we administered FUS to sheep brain after intravenous injection of microbubbles. BBB opening was confirmed by performing dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to detect the extravasated gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents. Through pharmacokinetic analysis as well as independent component analysis of the DCE-MRI data, we observed localized enhancement in BBB permeability at the area that subjected to acoustic pressure of 0.48 MPa (mechanical index = 0.96). On the other hand, application of a higher pressure at 0.58 MPa resulted in localized, minor cerebral hemorrhage. No animals exhibited abnormal behavior during the post-FUS survival periods up to 2 mo. Our data suggest that monitoring for excessive BBB disruption is important for safe translation of the method to humans.