Stratum corneum lipids are responsible for the skin's barrier function. They are the final product of epidermis lipid biosynthesis. During this process, lipids evolve from simple to complex structures in three main levels respectively (stratum basal level, stratum granulosum level, and stratum corneum level). Our aim was to simultaneously analyze and characterize the structure of total epidermis lipids. A powerful analytical method (normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (NPLC/HR-MSn)) was developed in order to separate, in a single run, lipid classes with a wide polarity range. Chromatographic conditions were particularly designed to analyze lipids of intermediate polarity such as ceramides. Rich information was obtained about the molecular structure of keratinocyte differentiation biomarkers such as ceramides, glucosylceramides, and sphingomyelins and the microstructures of reconstructed human epidermis lipids using HR-MSn. A new subclass of ceramides, 1-O-Acyl Omega-linoleoyloxy ceramides [1-O-E (EO) Cer] has been highlighted. This class is double esterified on the 1-O-position of sphingoid base with long to very long chain acyl residues (1-O-E) and on the position of ω-hydroxyl group of fatty acid with the linolenic acid (EO). Considering its chemical structure and hydrophobicity, this subclass can contribute to the skin barrier. In addition, we detected a new epidermis sphingomyelins. Our lipidomic approach offers a direct access to epidermis biomarkers.