Transmission of Mechanical Information by Purinergic Signaling.

Biophysical journal (2019-05-06)
Nicholas Mikolajewicz, Simon Sehayek, Paul W Wiseman, Svetlana V Komarova

The skeleton constantly interacts and adapts to the physical world. We have previously reported that physiologically relevant mechanical forces lead to small repairable membrane injuries in bone-forming osteoblasts, resulting in release of ATP and stimulation of purinergic (P2) calcium responses in neighboring cells. The goal of this study was to develop a theoretical model describing injury-related ATP and ADP release, their extracellular diffusion and degradation, and purinergic responses in neighboring cells. After validation using experimental data for intracellular free calcium elevations, ATP, and vesicular release after mechanical stimulation of a single osteoblast, the model was scaled to a tissue-level injury to investigate how purinergic signaling communicates information about injuries with varying geometries. We found that total ATP released, peak extracellular ATP concentration, and the ADP-mediated signaling component contributed complementary information regarding the mechanical stimulation event. The total amount of ATP released governed spatial factors, such as the maximal distance from the injury at which purinergic responses were stimulated. The peak ATP concentration reflected the severity of an individual cell injury, allowing to discriminate between minor and severe injuries that released similar amounts of ATP because of differences in injury repair, and determined temporal aspects of the response, such as signal propagation velocity. ADP-mediated signaling became relevant only in larger tissue-level injuries, conveying information about the distance to the injury site and its geometry. Thus, we identified specific features of extracellular ATP and ADP spatiotemporal signals that depend on tissue mechanoresilience and encode the severity, scope, and proximity of the mechanical stimulus.

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Adenosine 5′-monophosphate disodium salt, ≥99.0% (HPLC)