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Microbial butyrate and its role for barrier function in the gastrointestinal tract.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2012-06-27)
Svenja Plöger, Friederike Stumpff, Gregory B Penner, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Gotthold Gäbel, Holger Martens, Zanming Shen, Dorothee Günzel, Joerg R Aschenbach
ABSTRACT

Butyrate production in the large intestine and ruminant forestomach depends on bacterial butyryl-CoA/acetate-CoA transferase activity and is highest when fermentable fiber and nonstructural carbohydrates are balanced. Gastrointestinal epithelia seem to use butyrate and butyrate-induced endocrine signals to adapt proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation to the growth of the bacterial community. Butyrate has a potential clinical application in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; ulcerative colitis). Via inhibited release of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 13 and inhibition of histone deacetylase, butyrate may contribute to the restoration of the tight junction barrier in IBD by affecting the expression of claudin-2, occludin, cingulin, and zonula occludens poteins (ZO-1, ZO-2). Further evaluation of the molecular events that link butyrate to an improved tight junction structure will allow for the elucidation of the cofactors affecting the reliability of butyrate as a clinical treatment tool.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Butyric acid, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Butyric acid, natural, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Butyric acid, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Butyric acid, ≥99%, FG