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Biofilm development and enhanced stress resistance of a model, mixed-species community biofilm.

The ISME journal (2013-10-25)
Kai Wei Kelvin Lee, Saravanan Periasamy, Manisha Mukherjee, Chao Xie, Staffan Kjelleberg, Scott A Rice
ABSTRACT

Most studies of biofilm biology have taken a reductionist approach, where single-species biofilms have been extensively investigated. However, biofilms in nature mostly comprise multiple species, where interspecies interactions can shape the development, structure and function of these communities differently from biofilm populations. Hence, a reproducible mixed-species biofilm comprising Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas protegens and Klebsiella pneumoniae was adapted to study how interspecies interactions affect biofilm development, structure and stress responses. Each species was fluorescently tagged to determine its abundance and spatial localization within the biofilm. The mixed-species biofilm exhibited distinct structures that were not observed in comparable single-species biofilms. In addition, development of the mixed-species biofilm was delayed 1-2 days compared with the single-species biofilms. Composition and spatial organization of the mixed-species biofilm also changed along the flow cell channel, where nutrient conditions and growth rate of each species could have a part in community assembly. Intriguingly, the mixed-species biofilm was more resistant to the antimicrobials sodium dodecyl sulfate and tobramycin than the single-species biofilms. Crucially, such community level resilience was found to be a protection offered by the resistant species to the whole community rather than selection for the resistant species. In contrast, community-level resilience was not observed for mixed-species planktonic cultures. These findings suggest that community-level interactions, such as sharing of public goods, are unique to the structured biofilm community, where the members are closely associated with each other.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, BioReagent, suitable for electrophoresis, for molecular biology, ≥98.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, ReagentPlus®, ≥98.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, 10% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, ≥99.0% (GC), dust-free pellets
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Sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, 20% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, BioXtra, ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, 92.5-100.5% based on total alkyl sulfate content basis
Supelco
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, suitable for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, dust-free pellets, suitable for electrophoresis, for molecular biology, ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Tobramycin, Aminoglycoside antibiotic
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, ≥90%
Sigma-Aldrich
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Supelco
Tobramycin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium dodecyl sulfate, tested according to NF, mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting mainly of sodium dodecyl sulfate
Sodium laurilsulfate, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Tobramycin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Tobramycin for identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard