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  • Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

Nature (2014-09-19)
Jotham Suez, Tal Korem, David Zeevi, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Christoph A Thaiss, Ori Maza, David Israeli, Niv Zmora, Shlomit Gilad, Adina Weinberger, Yael Kuperman, Alon Harmelin, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal, Hagit Shapiro, Zamir Halpern, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav
ABSTRACT

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Saccharin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sucrose, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
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Sucralose, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
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USP
Sucralose, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
USP
Saccharin, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
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USP
Dextrose, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
USP
Sucrose, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Sucralose, analytical standard
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D-(+)-Glucose, tested according to Ph. Eur.
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D-(+)-Glucose, BioUltra, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (sum of enantiomers, HPLC)
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Sucrose, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (HPLC)
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Sucrose, meets USP testing specifications
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Sucrose, analytical standard, for enzymatic assay kit SCA20
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D-(+)-Glucose, ≥99.5% (GC)
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