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MitoNEET-Parkin Effects in Pancreatic α- and β-Cells, Cellular Survival, and Intrainsular Cross Talk.

Diabetes (2016-02-21)
Christine M Kusminski, Shiuhwei Chen, Risheng Ye, Kai Sun, Qiong A Wang, Stephen B Spurgin, Phillip E Sanders, Joseph T Brozinick, Werner J Geldenhuys, Wen-Hong Li, Roger H Unger, Philipp E Scherer
ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial metabolism plays an integral role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in β-cells. In addition, the diabetogenic role of glucagon released from α-cells plays a major role in the etiology of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes because unopposed hyperglucagonemia is a pertinent contributor to diabetic hyperglycemia. Titrating expression levels of the mitochondrial protein mitoNEET is a powerful approach to fine-tune mitochondrial capacity of cells. Mechanistically, β-cell-specific mitoNEET induction causes hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance due to activation of a Parkin-dependent mitophagic pathway, leading to the formation of vacuoles and uniquely structured mitophagosomes. Induction of mitoNEET in α-cells leads to fasting-induced hypoglycemia and hypersecretion of insulin during GSIS. MitoNEET-challenged α-cells exert potent antiapoptotic effects on β-cells and prevent cellular dysfunction associated with mitoNEET overexpression in β-cells. These observations identify that reduced mitochondrial function in α-cells exerts potently protective effects on β-cells, preserving β-cell viability and mass.

MATERIALS
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Roche
Liberase TL Research Grade, low Thermolysin concentration

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