MilliporeSigma
HomeCell SignalingInterleukin Family (IL)

Interleukin Family (IL)

Jennifer Fries

The Interleukins comprise a disparate group of cytokines and growth factors that are produced by and released from leukocytes. Interleukin-1β (1L-1β) is released primarily from stimulated macrophages and monocytes and plays a key role in inflammatory and immune responses and may induce anti-tumor immunity. It activates T cells to proliferate and secrete IL-2. IL-2 is also known as T cell growth factor since it promotes longterm growth of activated T cells, activation and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells and induction of INF-γ and B cell growth factor secretion. IL-3 is a colony-stimulating factor that induces colony formation of macrophages, neutrohils, mast cells, and megakaryocytes from hematopoietic progenitor cells. IL-3 also interacts with IL-2 to stimulate growth of T cells and to induce IgG secretion from activated B cells. IL-4 is produced by T cells and stimulates the growth and differentiation of immunologically competent cells and activates helper T cell (Th2) function. IL-5 is a hematopoietic cytokine that stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of eosinophils. It is also involved in B cell growth and antibody production and in the generation of cytotoxic T cells. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in the regulation of the acute-phase immune system response to infection and injury. IL-7 is a lymphoid cell growth factor that induces proliferation of pre-B, pro-B, and early T cells as well as certain leukemia and lymphomas. IL-8 is a chemokine of the CXC family that is chemotactic for neutrophils and induces the release of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow. IL-10 is produced by the Th2 cells, B cells, macrophages and keratinocytes. It is anti-inflammatory in that it inhibits the synthesis of cytokines in target cells at the mRNA transcription or translation level. However, it also enhances the function of B cells and cytotoxic T cells. IL-12 is produced predominantly by monocytes and NK cells and induces T cells and NK cells to produce IFN-γ. IL-12 has antiangiogenic properties. IL-13 is produced predominantly by Th2 cells and induces B cell proliferation and differentiation. IL-15 is a cytokine produced in macrophages and T cells that enhances T cell proliferation and maintains CD8 (+) cytotoxic T cell survival.

Interleukin 16 (IL-16), also know as lymphocyte chemoattractant factor LCF, is a proinflammatory cytokine that is chemotactic for CD4+ T lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils.

Figure 1.Interleukin 16 (IL-16), also know as lymphocyte chemoattractant factor LCF, is a proinflammatory cytokine that is chemotactic for CD4+ T lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils.

Materials
Loading

References

1.
Apte RN, Voronov E. 2002. Interleukin-1?a major pleiotropic cytokine in tumor?host interactions. Seminars in Cancer Biology. 12(4):277-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1044-579x(02)00014-7
2.
Mocellin S, Panelli M, Wang E, Rossi CR, Marincola FM. 2002. Tumor Microenvironment: What have we Learned Studying the Immune Response in this Puzzling Battlefield?. Tumori Journal. 88(6):437-444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030089160208800601
3.
Reddy EP, Korapati A, Chaturvedi P, Rane S. 2000. IL-3 signaling and the role of Src kinases, JAKs and STATs: a covert liaison unveiled. Oncogene. 19(21):2532-2547. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1203594
4.
Nagai S, Toi M. 2000. Interleukin-4 and breast cancer. Breast Cancer. 7(3):181-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02967457
5.
Apostolopoulos V, McKenzie I, Lees C, Matthaei K, Young I. 2000. A role for IL‐5 in the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo.. European journal of immunology.. 30(6) 1733-9.
6.
Ishihara K, Hirano T. 2002. IL-6 in autoimmune disease and chronic inflammatory proliferative disease. Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 13(4-5):357-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1359-6101(02)00027-8
7.
Al-Rawi M, Rmali K, Watkins G, Mansel R, Jiang W. 2004. Aberrant expression of interleukin-7 (IL-7) and its signalling complex in human breast cancer. European Journal of Cancer. 40(4):494-502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2003.10.016
8.
Xie K. 2001. Interleukin-8 and human cancer biology. Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 12(4):375-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1359-6101(01)00016-8
9.
Conti P, Kempuraj D, Kandere K, Gioacchino MD, Barbacane RC, Castellani ML, Felaco M, Boucher W, Letourneau R, Theoharides TC. 2003. IL-10, an inflammatory/inhibitory cytokine, but not always. Immunology Letters. 86(2):123-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-2478(03)00002-6
10.
Li S. 2001. IL-12-Based therapy of malignancies. Drugs Today. 37(9):629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1358/dot.2001.37.9.844222
11.
Wynn TA. 2003. IL-13 EFFECTORFUNCTIONS. Annu. Rev. Immunol.. 21(1):425-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.21.120601.141142
12.
Klebanoff CA, Finkelstein SE, Surman DR, Lichtman MK, Gattinoni L, Theoret MR, Grewal N, Spiess PJ, Antony PA, Palmer DC, et al. 2004. IL-15 enhances thein vivoantitumor activity of tumor-reactive CD8+T Cells. PNAS. 101(7):1969-1974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0307298101