1,4-dithiothreitol, cleland′s reagent, dithiothreitol, 1,4-, threo-1,4-Dimercapto-2,3-butanediol, DTT, Cleland’s reagent, DL-Dithiothreitol
Linear Formula:
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:


≥97% (Ellman′s reagent)


crystalline powder

mol wt

Mr 154.3

reaction suitability

reagent type: reductant


pkg of 10 g (10708984001)
pkg of 2 g (10197777001)
pkg of 25 g (11583786001)




41-44 °C (lit.)

shipped in

wet ice

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

1,4-dithiothreitol is commonly known as Cleland′s reagent. It confers protection to thiol groups and reduces disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins. It reduces disulfide bonds to sulfhydryl group and is commonly used in receptor studies, to determine the functional importance of disulfide bonds during receptor occupancy and functionality. It also maintains monothiols completely in the reduced state.


1,4-dithiothreitol is used in:
  • Isolation, purification and characterization of proteins and enzymes
  • Measurement of enzyme activities (reactivation of enzymes)
  • Determination of disulfide groups in proteins and enzymes
  • DNA extraction prior to amplification
An excellent reagent for maintaining SH groups in reduced state; quantitatively reduces disulfides. DTT is effective in sample buffers for reducing protein disulfide bonds prior to SDS-PAGE. DTT can also be used for reducing the disulfide bridge of the cross-linker N,N′-bis(acryloyl)cystamine to break apart the matrix of a polyacrylamide gel. DTT is less pungent and is less toxic than 2-mercaptoethanol. Typically, a seven fold lower concentration of DTT (100 mM) is needed than is used for 2-mercaptoethanol (5% v/v, 700 mM).


Oxidized form: <2.5% (absorbance at 283nm)


Our DTT-preparation is optically inactive, i.e. it is the D,L-DTT.

Preparation Note

Storage conditions (working solution): A solution of DTT in Hepes buffer, pH 7.75 is stable for one week at 2 to 8 °C if the container is tightly sealed and the solution is protected from atmospheric oxygen by argon or nitrogen.

Other Notes

For life science research only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.


NONH for all modes of transport

Frans J L Robberts et al.
Journal of clinical microbiology, 42(4), 1505-1510 (2004-04-09)
Sequence analysis of Pneumocystis jiroveci internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions has become an important epidemiological tool. The objectives of the present study were to investigate sequence variations in the ITS1-5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-ITS2 regions; determine the P. jiroveci genotypes present...
J Donaldson et al.
British journal of pharmacology, 87(1), 191-199 (1986-01-01)
1,4-Dithiothreitol (DTT; 1 mM, 30 min preincubation) produced a small, non-specific potentiation of spasmogenic activity in longitudinal muscle strips of guinea-pig small intestine. A direct comparison of contractile responses elicited by histamine and a range of H1- and non-H1-receptor agonists...
Synthesis of optically active Cleland's reagent [(-)-1, 4-dithio-L-threitol]
Carmack M and Charles J K
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 33(5), 2171-2173 (1968)
Emanuelle Pascolo et al.
The Journal of biological chemistry, 277(18), 15566-15572 (2002-02-21)
Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein acting as a reverse transcriptase, has been identified as a target for cancer drug discovery. The synthetic, non-nucleosidic compound, BIBR1532, is a potent and selective telomerase inhibitor capable of inducing senescence in human cancer cells (). In...

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