In the intensive care unit, dopamine agonists (DA) have been used in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients to augment or accelerate cognitive recovery and rehabilitation. However, the efficacy and safety of DA in this population is not well established. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the clinical efficacy and safety of DA in patients with TBI. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, comparing DA to either placebo, standard treatment, or another active comparator. There was no restriction for age, date, or language of publication. Sensitivity analyses were planned to evaluate the potential effect of timing of TBI, age, drugs, and year of publication on efficacy. Among the 790 citations identified, 20 RCTs evaluating methylphenidate, amantadine, and bromocriptine were eligible. Significant clinical heterogeneity was observed between and within studies, which precluded any pooling of data. Efficacy outcomes included mainly neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning. A total of 76 different neuropsychological tests were used, but most of them (59%) only once. Only 5 studies systematically assessed safety. No trend could be drawn from the analysis of efficacy and safety. Important sources of bias in the studies were of major concern. Considering the absence of consensus regarding clinical outcome, the lack of safety assessment, and the high risk of bias in the included trials, more research is warranted before DA can be recommended in critically ill TBI patients.