The diabetes prevention paradigm envisages the application of strategies that support the maintenance of appropriate β-cell numbers. Herein we show that overexpression of CXC chemokine ligand12 (CXCL12) considerably improves the viability of isolated rat Langerhans islet cells and Rin-5F pancreatic β-cells after hydrogen peroxide treatment. In rat islets and wt cells hydrogen peroxide treatment induced necrotic cell death that was mediated by the rapid and extensive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In contrast, CXCL12-overexpressing cells were protected from necrotic cell death as a result of significantly reduced PARP-1 activity. CXCL12 downstream signalling through Akt kinase was responsible for the reduction of PARP-1 activity which switched cell death from necrosis to apoptosis, providing increased protection to cells from oxidative stress. Our results offer a novel aspect of the CXCL12-mediated improvement of β-cell viability which is based on its antinecrotic action through modulation of PARP-1 activity.
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