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Glassy Metal Alloy Nanofiber Anodes Employing Graphene Wrapping Layer: Toward Ultralong-Cycle-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

ACS nano (2015-06-02)
Ji-Won Jung, Won-Hee Ryu, Jungwoo Shin, Kyusung Park, Il-Doo Kim
ABSTRACT

Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been intensively explored as one of the most attractive candidates for high-capacity and long-cycle-life anode in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) primarily because of its reduced volume expansion characteristic (∼280%) compared to crystalline Si anodes (∼400%) after full Li(+) insertion. Here, we report one-dimensional (1-D) electrospun Si-based metallic glass alloy nanofibers (NFs) with an optimized composition of Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2. On the basis of careful compositional tailoring of Si alloy NFs, we found that Ce plays the most important role as a glass former in the formation of the metallic glass alloy. Moreover, Si-based metallic glass alloy NFs were wrapped by reduced graphene oxide sheets (specifically Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs@rGO), which can prevent the direct exposure of a-Si alloy NFs to the liquid electrolyte and stabilize the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers on the surfaces of rGO sheets while facilitating electron transport. The metallic glass nanofibers exhibited superior electrochemical cell performance as an anode: (i) Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs show a high specific capacity of 1017 mAh g(-1) up to 400 cycles at 0.05C with negligible capacity loss as well as superior cycling performance (nearly 99.9% capacity retention even after 2000 cycles at 0.5C); (ii) Si60Sn12Ce18Fe5Al3Ti2 NFs@rGO reveals outstanding rate behavior (569.77 mAh g(-1) after 2000 cycles at 0.5C and a reversible capacity of around 370 mAh g(-1) at 4C). We demonstrate the potential suitability of multicomponent a-Si alloy NFs as a long-cycling anode material.

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