A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the determination of DRF-1042, a novel orally active camptothecin (CPT) analog, in human plasma. The sample preparation was a simple deproteinization with acidified methanol yielding almost 100% recovery of DRF-1042. An isocratic reverse-phase HPLC separation was developed on a Supelcosil-LC318 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with mobile phase consisting of 1% v/v triethylamine acetate, pH 5.5 and acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) at a fl ow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluate was monitored with a fluorescence detector set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 370 and 430 nm, respectively. The standard curves were linear (r(2) > 0.999) in the concentration ranges 5.0-2004 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLQ) of the assay was 5 ng/mL. The mean measured quality control (QC) concentrations (range 5 ng/mL to 40 microg/mL) deviated from the nominal concentrations in the range of -10.5-0.08 and -14.5-7.97%, inter- and intra-day, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions in the measurement of QC samples at four tested concentrations, were in the range 0.64-5.89% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 0.33-14.7% RSD, respectively. The method was found to be suitable for measurement of plasma concentrations above the calibration curve after serial dilutions. Stability of DRF-1042 was confirmed in a battery of studies, viz., on bench-top, in the auto-sampler, in the stock solutions, after four quick freeze-thaw cycles, up to one month at -20 degree C in human plasma and up to 2 months in the ex vivo samples. The method is simple, sensitive and reliable and has been successfully implemented to investigate the clinical pharmacokinetics of DRF-1042 in cancer patients in a phase I clinical trial.