E8751

Sigma-Aldrich

Ethidium bromide

~95% (HPLC)

Synonym(s):
Homidium bromide, 3,8-Diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide, EtBr
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C21H20BrN3
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
394.31
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
3642536
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NB.22
Pricing and availability is not currently available.

assay

~95% (HPLC)

Quality Level

mp

260-262 °C (dec.) (lit.)

SMILES string

Br-.CCn+1c(-c2ccccc2)c3cc(N)ccc3c4ccc(N)cc14

InChI

1S/C21H19N3.BrH/c1-2-24-20-13-16(23)9-11-18(20)17-10-8-15(22)12-19(17)21(24)14-6-4-3-5-7-14;/h3-13,23H,2,22H2,1H3;1H

InChI key

ZMMJGEGLRURXTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Looking for similar products? Visit Product Comparison Guide

Application

Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is the most commonly used nucleic acid stain for PAGE or agarose gel electrophoresis. The fluorescence of EtBr increases 21-fold upon binding to double-stranded RNA and 25-fold on binding double-stranded DNA so that destaining the background is not necessary with a low stain concentration (10 μg/ml). Ethidium bromide has been used in a number of fluorimetric assays for nucleic acids. It has been shown to bind to single-stranded DNA (although not as strongly) and triple-stranded DNA. Because of its ability to bind to DNA, EtBr is an inhibitor of DNA polymerase.

Frameshift mutagen which intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA.

Packaging

1, 5, 10, 25 g in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Ethidium bromide intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA and acts as a frameshift mutagen. It can also be used in conjunction with acridine orange to differentiate between viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells.

Reconstitution

For staining a gel after electrophoresis, dilute a sample of the stock solution to 0.5 μg/ml with water and incubate the gel for 15-30 min. Destaining is usually not needed but can be carried out in water for 15 min if decreased background is necessary. The DNA bands can then be detected on a UV light box (254 nm wavelength). Ethidium bromide can also be incorporated into the gel and running buffer at 0.5 μg/ml and visualized immediately after electrophoresis.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbonesHealth hazard

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Hazard Codes

T+

Risk Statement

22-26-68

Safety Statement

28-36/37-45-63

RIDADR

UN 2811PIH 6.1 / PGI

WGK Germany

WGK 1

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
  1. Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?

    If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis.

  2. How do I get lot-specific information or a Certificate of Analysis?

    The lot specific COA document can be found by entering the lot number above under the "Documents" section.

  3. How do I find price and availability?

    There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products. Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page. You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote.  USA customers:  1-800-325-3010 or view local office numbers.

  4. What is the best working concentration of Product E8751, Ethidium bromide?

    For staining a gel after electrophoresis, dilute a sample of the stock solution to 0.5 μg/mL with water and incubate the gel for 15-30 min.  Ethidium bromide can also be incorporated into the gel and running buffer at 0.5 μg/mL, and visualized immediately after electrophoresis.

  5. How can I make a stock solution of Product E8751, Ethidium bromide?

    Ethidium bromide is soluble in water at 100 mg/mL. Per Crary, B. and Boyrsenko, M., Biotechniques, 4, 98-101 (1986), stock solutions of ethidium bromide in water or PBS are stable for at least two years at room temperature if protected from light.

  6. How can I dispose of solutions containing Product E8751, Ethidium bromide?

    Ethidium bromide is mutagenic, and ultimately has to be destroyed by incineration. It can be removed from buffer solutions by several methods to reduce the volume of waste. See the product sheet for more details.

  7. What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?

    Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS.To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product. 

  8. My question is not addressed here, how can I contact Technical Service for assistance?

    Ask a Scientist here.

  9. My question is not addressed here, how can I contact Technical Service for assistance?

    Ask a Scientist here.

Patrick Seitz et al.
PLoS genetics, 10(1), e1004066-e1004066 (2014-01-07)
The DNA uptake of naturally competent bacteria has been attributed to the action of DNA uptake machineries resembling type IV pilus complexes. However, the protein(s) for pulling the DNA across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria remain speculative. Here we...
Ulrich Braunschweig et al.
Genome research, 24(11), 1774-1786 (2014-09-27)
Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor RNAs is responsible for greatly expanding the regulatory and functional capacity of eukaryotic genomes. Of the different classes of AS, intron retention (IR) is the least well understood. In plants and unicellular eukaryotes, IR is...
Li Zhang et al.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 186, 39-51 (2014-12-04)
Bill Milsom has made seminal contributions to our understanding of ventilatory control in a wide range of vertebrates. Teleosts are particularly interesting, because they produce a 3rd, potentially toxic respiratory gas (ammonia) in large amounts. Fish are well known to...
Yuanhao Zhang et al.
PloS one, 10(6), e0130902-e0130902 (2015-07-01)
Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains are detected more frequently within mucosal lesions of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The AIEC phenotype consists of adherence and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells and survival within macrophages of these bacteria in vitro. Our...
Timothy R Sampson et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(30), 11163-11168 (2014-07-16)
Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems defend bacteria against foreign nucleic acids, such as during bacteriophage infection and transformation, processes which cause envelope stress. It is unclear if these machineries enhance membrane integrity to combat this stress....
Articles
The Comet Assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying and analyzing DNA damage in individual cells.
Read More
Protocols
The Comet Assay, also called single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying and analyzing DNA damage in individual cells.
Read More
Related Content
Ethidium bromide is a well-known and widely used fluorescent dye in biotechnology research.
Read More

Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others.

Contact Technical Service

Social Media

LinkedIn icon
Twitter icon
Facebook Icon
Instagram Icon

MilliporeSigma

Research. Development. Production.

We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.

© 2021 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission.