Ten oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, 1-10, including four new compounds, calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-methyl ester (2), calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-n-butyl ester (3), calendulaglycoside B 6'-O-n-butyl ester (5), and calendulaglycoside C 6'-O-n-butyl ester (8), along with five known flavonol glycosides, 11-15, were isolated from the flowers of marigold (Calendula officinalis). Upon evaluation of compounds 1-9 for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds, except for 1, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values of 0.05-0.20 mg per ear. In addition, when 1-15 were evaluated against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA, compounds 1-10 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 471-487 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). Furthermore, upon evaluation of the cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines in vitro in the NCI Developmental Therapeutics Program, two triterpene glycosides, 9 and 10, exhibited their most potent cytotoxic effects against colon cancer, leukemia, and melanoma cells.
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