The culture of live pancreatic tissue slices is a powerful tool for the interrogation of physiology and pathology in an in vitro setting that retains near-intact cytoarchitecture. However, current culture conditions for human pancreatic slices (HPSs) have only been tested for short-term applications, which are not permissive for the long-term, longitudinal study of pancreatic endocrine regeneration. Using a culture system designed to mimic the physiological oxygenation of the pancreas, we demonstrate high viability and preserved endocrine and exocrine function in HPS for at least 10 days after sectioning. This extended lifespan allowed us to dynamically lineage trace and quantify the formation of insulin-producing cells in HPS from both non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic donors. This technology is expected to be of great impact for the conduct of real-time regeneration/developmental studies in the human pancreas.