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A Neuro-hormonal Circuit for Paternal Behavior Controlled by a Hypothalamic Network Oscillation.

Cell (2020-08-09)
Stefanos Stagkourakis, Kristina O Smiley, Paul Williams, Sarah Kakadellis, Katharina Ziegler, Joanne Bakker, Rosemary S E Brown, Tibor Harkany, David R Grattan, Christian Broberger
ABSTRACT

Parental behavior is pervasive throughout the animal kingdom and essential for species survival. However, the relative contribution of the father to offspring care differs markedly across animals, even between related species. The mechanisms that organize and control paternal behavior remain poorly understood. Using Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice, two species at opposite ends of the paternal spectrum, we identified that distinct electrical oscillation patterns in neuroendocrine dopamine neurons link to a chain of low dopamine release, high circulating prolactin, prolactin receptor-dependent activation of medial preoptic area galanin neurons, and paternal care behavior in male mice. In rats, the same parameters exhibit inverse profiles. Optogenetic manipulation of these rhythms in mice dramatically shifted serum prolactin and paternal behavior, whereas injecting prolactin into non-paternal rat sires triggered expression of parental care. These findings identify a frequency-tuned brain-endocrine-brain circuit that can act as a gain control system determining a species' parental strategy.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Triton X-100, laboratory grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
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Bovine Serum Albumin, lyophilized powder, ≥96% (agarose gel electrophoresis)
Sigma-Aldrich
Triton X-100, for molecular biology
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Donkey serum
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2-Phenoxyethanol, ≥99%
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Potassium chloride, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
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Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, Chemicon®, from rabbit
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Sodium phosphate monobasic dihydrate, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.0% (T)
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Sodium bicarbonate, BioXtra, 99.5-100.5%
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Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (KT)
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Cesium methanesulfonate, used in patch clamp techniques
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Calcium chloride dihydrate, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
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Anti-Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, clone LNC1, ascites fluid, clone LNC1, Chemicon®
Sigma-Aldrich
Rat Prolactin ELISA Kit, for cell culture supernatants, plasma, and serum samples