Although Cu complexes have been investigated as anticancer agents, there has been no description of Cu itself as a cancer killing agent. A stealth liposomal Cu formulation (LpCu) was studied in vitro and in vivo. LpCu was evaluated in prostate cancer origin PC-3 cells by a metabolic cytotoxicity assay, by monitoring ROS, and by flow cytometry. LpCu efficacy was evaluated in vivo using intratumoral and intravenous injections into mice bearing PC-3 xenograft tumors. Toxicology was assessed by performing hematological and blood biochemistry assays, and tissue histology and Cu distribution was investigated by elemental analysis. LpCu and free Cu salts displayed similar levels of cell metabolic toxicity and ROS. Flow cytometry indicated that the mechanisms of cell death were both apoptosis and necrosis. Animals injected i.t. with 3.5 mg/kg or i.v. with 3.5 and 7.0 mg/kg LpCu exhibited significant tumor growth inhibition. Kidney and eye were the main organs affected by Cu-mediated toxicities, but spleen and liver were the major organs of Cu deposition. LpCu was effective at reducing tumor burden in the xenograft prostate cancer model. There was histological evidence of Cu toxicity in kidneys and eyes of animals treated at the maximum tolerated dose of LpCu 7.0 mg/kg.