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Pluronic P85 enhances the efficacy of outer membrane vesicles as a subunit vaccine against Brucella melitensis challenge in mice.

FEMS immunology and medical microbiology (2012-11-21)
Neeta Jain-Gupta, Araceli Contreras-Rodriguez, Ramesh Vemulapalli, Sharon G Witonsky, Stephen M Boyle, Nammalwar Sriranganathan
ABSTRACT

Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide, and there is no vaccine for human use. Brucella melitensis Rev1, a live attenuated strain, is the commercial vaccine for small ruminants to prevent B. melitensis infections but has been associated with abortions in animals. Moreover, strain Rev1 is known to cause disease in humans and cannot be used for human vaccination. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) obtained from B. melitensis have been shown to provide protection similar to strain Rev1 in mice against B. melitensis challenge. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of Pluronic P85 as an adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of Brucella OMVs as a vaccine. P85 enhanced the in vitro secretion of TNF-α by macrophages induced with OMVs and P85. Further, P85 enhanced the protection provided by OMVs against B. melitensis challenge. This enhanced protection was associated with higher total IgG antibody production but not increased IFN-γ or IL-4 cytokine levels. Moreover, P85 alone provided significantly better clearance of B. melitensis compared to saline-vaccinated mice. Further studies are warranted to find the mechanism of action of P85 that provides nonspecific protection and enhances the efficacy of OMVs as a vaccine against B. melitensis.

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