ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters may cause treatment failure by transporting of anticancer drugs outside of the tumor cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 coded by the ABCC1 gene has recently been suggested as a potential prognostic marker in breast cancer patients. This study aimed to explore tagged haplotype covering nucleotide binding domain 1 of ABCC1 in relation with corresponding transcript levels in tissues and clinical phenotype of breast cancer patients. The distribution of twelve ABCC1 polymorphisms was assessed by direct sequencing in peripheral blood DNA (n = 540). Tumors from carriers of the wild type genotype in rs35623 or rs35628 exhibited significantly lower levels of ABCC1 transcript than those from carriers of the minor allele (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively). The ABCC1 transcript levels significantly increased in the order CT-GT>CC-GT>CC-GG for the predicted rs35626-rs4148351 diplotype. Chemotherapy-treated patients carrying the T allele in rs4148353 had longer disease-free survival than those with the GG genotype (p = 0.043). On the other hand, hormonal therapy-treated patients with the AA genotype in rs35628 had significantly longer disease-free survival than carriers of the G allele (p = 0.012). Taken together, our study shows that genetic variability in the nucleotide binding domain 1 has a significant impact on the ABCC1 transcript level in the target tissue and may modify survival of breast cancer patients.